古时候最重要的考试是说而不是写。 在古希腊和古罗马的学校里,考试通常是让创作一首诗或作一次演讲 。
In the universities of the Middle Ages, students who were working for advanced degrees had to discuss questions xiaogushi8.com in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject. This custom exists today as part of the process of testing candidates for the doctor's degree.
在中世纪欧洲的大学里,攻读高等学位的学生要同对该学科有特殊研究的学者共同探讨这一领域的问题 。作为博士生获取学位过程的一部分,现在这种惯例依然存在 。
Generally, however, modern examination, where all students are tested on the same questions, was probably not known until the development xiaogushi8.com of modern industry. A room full of candidates for a state examination, tried exactly by electric clocks and careful watched over by manages, resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory. Certainly, during examinations teachers and students are expected to act like machines.
但是现代考试渐渐就转化成了笔试。在笔试中所有的学生都回答同样的同题,这种考试直到19世纪才出现。 可能这种考试模式是伴着人口的大量增长与工业化的发展而出现的 。一个房间里坐满了参加正式考试的考生,电子钟精确计量时间,管理人员仔细巡逻现场,看似汽车工厂里的一群工人。当然,考试期间学生和老师都要像机器一样行事。
One type of test is sometimes called an “objective” test. It is intended to deal with facts, not personal opinions. To make up an objective test the xiaogushi8.com teacher writes a series of questions. Each of which has only one correct answer and also three statements that look like answers to students who have not learned the material properly.有一种考试称作“客观'考试, 目的是为了考事实而非考学生的观点。要进行一场客观考试,老师要写下一系列问题,每一个问题只有一个正确答案和三个类似答案,这些答案在那些对知识掌握不牢固的同学看来也似正确答案 。